ISLAMIC- ETHIC FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
Potential of working according to participation, sharing and ethical criteria financial institutions and Finance Market Estimates $3.4 Trillion by end of 2018. Finance assets represented 1% of the global financial market of $127 Trillion in assets.
Alternative-ethic-safe-profitable financial instruments is a centuries-old practice that is gaining recognition throughout the world and whose ethical nature is even drawing the interest of all investors.
Big potential finance investors have been trying to lead their assets to safe investments.
It is important to note that there is a need for a more efficient and cost-effective way to increase the profitability of the finance and loan market.
GulfUS Capital and US SHAREFUND is a leading alternative Financial Service Company that is focused on building dynamic, profitable, and reputable finance and investments in the United States.
The US Share Fund operates in accordance with the principles of interest-free financial model as a participation fund, with bonds and profit sharing accounts, and lending such funds through production support, finance lease and profit/loss sharing partnership.
Our financial models is based on four core principles: Prohibiting usury-Avoiding speculation-Avoiding gambling-Investing ethically
Although our in the financial models have many products similar to those offered by conventional banks, the two entities differ conceptually. One key difference is that conventional banks earn their money by charging interest and fees for services, whereas our in the financial models earn their money by profit and loss sharing, trading, leasing, charging fees for services rendered, and using other share contracts of exchange.
Our partner financial institutions must comply with a variety of ethic principles besides avoiding interest.
Our Fund has a wholly-owned subsidiary that generates leasing/rental income by leasing assets back to the originating company which were taken over from the originating company.
In the our mortgage system, rather than lending a customer money to buy a house, the bank will buy the house itself. The customer can then either buy the house back from the bank at an agreed-upon, above-market value paid in instalments (this is called murabahah) or he can make monthly payments comprising a rental fee and a piece of the purchase price until he owns the home outright (ijara).
Our Halal Gold Coins will appreciate in USD value based on gold being mined from the gold mine.
Our financial instruments of Share Fund ; finance are not referred to as “loans’ but rather as financing modes falling under one of the three categories:
1-Profit-and-loss sharing (PLS),
2- Non-PLS contracts,
3- Fee-based products.
A- Profit-and-loss sharing (PLS) financing products:
1-Mudarabah; A profit-sharing partnership to which one contributes the capital and the other the entrepreneurship; or the bank provides the capital, the customer manages the project.
2-Musharakah; Equity participation, investment and management from all partners; profits are shared according to a pre-agreed ratio, losses according to equity contributions.
B- Non-PLS Financing Products
Non-PLS contracts are most common in practice. They are generally used to finance consumer and corporate credit, as well as asset rental and manufacturing. Non-PLS financing instruments include murâbaḥah, ijārah, salam, and istisna’.
Advance purchase financing products:
1-Murabahah; is a popular sale transaction mostly used in trade and asset financing. The bank purchases the goods and delivers them to the customer, deferring payment to a date agreed by the two parties. The expected return on murâbaḥah is usually aligned with interest payments on conventional loans, creating a similarity between murâbaḥah sales and asset-backed loans.
2-Forwards (salam and ‘istisna): These are rare forms of financing, used for certain types of business. Salam is a form of forward agreement where delivery occurs at a future date in exchange for spot payment. Such transactions were originally allowed to meet the financing needs of small farmers as they were unable to yield adequate returns until several periods after the initial investment.
Istithna’; A sales contract between bank and customer where the customer specifies goods to be made or shipped, which the bank then sells to the customer according to a pre-agreed arrangement.
Istisna’ is a contract in which a commodity can be transacted before it comes into existence.The unique feature of istisna’ (or manufacturing) is that nothing is exchanged on the spot or at the time of contracting.
3-Ajaar-Lease and Hire Purchase: A contract under which the bank leases equipment to a customer for a rental fee; at the end of the lease period the customer will buy the equipment at an agreed price minus the rental fees already paid.
Leasing (‘ijarah/’ijar);The sale of the right to use an object (usufruct) for a specific time period. One condition is that the lessor must own the leased object for the duration of the lease. A variation on the lease, ‘ijarah wa ‘iqtina provides for a lease to be written whereby the lessor agrees to sell the leased object at the lease’s end at a predetermined residual value. Only the lessor is bound by this promise. The lessee, by contrast, is not obligated to purchasing the item.
Our partner banks offer a wide spectrum of fee-based services using three types of contracts, wakalah, kafalah, or ju’ala. They are usually auxiliary to the main murâbaḥah and mudârabah transactions, though they generate various types of fees and commissions. The fee-based services provided by partner banks include bank transfers, issuing letters of credit and guarantees, credit cards, and offering collection and safe-custody services, mostly used in trade financing.
1-Mu’ajjal;Purchase with deferred delivery: A sales contract where the price is paid in advance by the bank and the goods are delivered later by the customer to a designee
2-Qard Hasan;Charitable loans free of interest and profit-sharing margins,repayment by instalments.
3-Wakalah;An authorization to the bank to conduct some business on the customer’s behalf. Wakalah results from the bank acting as the agent of a customer in a trade transaction or issuing a letter of credit facility.
4-Kafalah is a financial guarantee whereby the bank gives a pledge to a creditor on behalf of the debtor to cover fines or any other personal liability. It is widely used in conjunction with other financing modes or documentary credits.
5-Hawalah;An agreement by the bank to undertake some of the liabilities of the customer for which the bank receives a fee.
6-Ju’ala is essentially an istisna’ contract that is applicable for rendering a specified service as opposed to the manufacturing of a product.
Other Financial Instruments;
D- Deposit products
1-Wadi’ah; Deposits, including current accounts
2-Mudarabah; Deposit products based on revenue-sharing between depositor and bank, including savings products withdrawable at any time and time deposit products
E-Basic Investment Vehicles
Here are some types of investment for investing:
1-Equities. Investment in companies may be in shares or by direct investment (private equity).
2-Fixed-Income Funds. Retirement Investments. specific types of investment in real estate, either directly or in securitized fashion (a diversified real estate fund), could provide steady retirement income
3- Leasing bond-equivalent (Sukuk). The issuer will sell the financial certificate to an investor group, who will own them before renting them back to the issuer in exchange for a predetermined rental return. Like the interest rate on a conventional bond, the rental return may be a fixed or floating rate pegged to a benchmark, such as LIBOR. The issuer makes a binding promise to buy back the bonds at a future date at par value. Special purpose vehicles (SPV) are often set up to act as intermediaries in the transaction.
F- Insurance products
Tadamun, Takaful; Islamic insurance with joint risk-sharing